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Addressing Ransomware in Critical Information Infrastructure: Ten Essential Questions and Actions | nasscom | #ransomware | #cybercrime


Critical information infrastructure is facing an escalating and multifaceted threat from ransomware attacks. These attacks, once predominantly associated with data breaches and financial extortion, have evolved into a tool for disrupting essential services. The confluence of nation-state-sponsored cyber espionage, asymmetrical warfare, and the increasing sophistication of criminal ransomware groups have raised alarm bells. The reach of potential disruption becomes even more evident when assessing the scope of impact:

Disruption of essential services including electricity, oil, gas, water, waste management, and transport.

  • Compromised dependent services like emergency services and health facilities, endanger worker and citizen safety.
  • Financial repercussions, reputational damage, litigation, and regulatory consequences due to service outages.
  • Potential to halt an economy, induce public unrest and weaken a country’s governance, setting the stage for conventional military attacks.

This article presents a synthesized view, drawing insights from various references, to explore the multifaceted challenge of ransomware attacks on critical information infrastructure and proposes ten key questions and actions that organizations must consider to address this sophisticated cyber threat.

  1. Has your organization identified the critical business processes heavily reliant on technology?

Identifying the most critical business processes that heavily rely on technology is a fundamental step in ensuring operational resilience. These are processes that simply cannot function at an optimal level without the support of technology. Recognizing these processes enables prioritizing their protection against potential cyber threats, especially ransomware attacks that can disrupt operations.

  1. Is there a comprehensive ‘tree of dependencies’ for critical business processes, covering suppliers, people, and technology systems?

Once the critical processes are identified, constructing a comprehensive “tree of dependencies” is essential. This mapping encompasses suppliers, technology systems, and human involvement, helping pinpoint potential vulnerabilities and failure scenarios that could be exploited by ransomware attackers.

  1. Have individualized cyber risk assessments been conducted for these critical processes and their interdependencies?

Individual cyber risk assessments for these critical processes and their dependencies provide visibility into specific vulnerabilities and risks that deviate from acceptable risk thresholds. This visibility guides organizational decision-makers and professionals to take targeted actions to address vulnerabilities and mitigate risks that could result in severe disruptions or ransomware compromise.

  1. Is there a set of non-negotiable cyber controls for technology supporting critical business processes?

Implementing non-negotiable cyber controls for technology systems underpinning critical processes is crucial. Using these controls, based on established best practices, standards, and guidelines, Organizations can address common cyber hygiene issues and control weaknesses that are often exploited by ransomware attacks.

  1. Are business leaders actively collaborating to manage cyber risks effectively?

To effectively manage cyber risk, business leaders must take an active role in its governance. Collaboration and coordination among leadership, including the C-suite and Boards, are key to ensuring that risk management decisions are well-informed and aligned with the organization’s overall goals. By involving business leaders, organizations can prevent vulnerabilities from going unresolved due to fragmented decision-making, resulting in a more robust defense against ransomware.

  1. How proactively do you manage cyber risks related to crucial suppliers in your critical processes and systems?

Managing cyber risk within the supply chain is paramount, as third-party suppliers can inadvertently introduce ransomware and other malware to critical processes. By identifying and assessing these suppliers’ cyber security controls, organizations can minimize the risk of attack vectors and vulnerabilities entering systems through this route. Maintaining effective oversight ensures that the supply chain remains a strong link in the security chain.

  1. What measures are in place to safeguard legacy critical systems?

Defending legacy systems from potential cyber threats requires dedicated efforts. Unsupported software and outdated devices can create entry points for ransomware attacks. Establishing protective measures and having contingency plans for rebuilding these systems from scratch is essential for maintaining operational resilience.

  1. Is your organization relying too heavily on ‘air gaps’ for security?

While ‘air gaps’ have historically been seen as a security measure, it’s important to recognize their limitations. Modern industrial control systems (ICS) are susceptible to advanced cyber-attacks, and reliance solely on ‘air gaps’ can lead to a false sense of security. Instead, a more comprehensive approach that includes network segmentation, active monitoring, and quick response measures is needed to effectively protect critical systems against ransomware.

  1. How prepared is your workforce to handle cyber risks?

Human error remains a significant factor in cyber incidents, including ransomware attacks. Strengthening the cyber resilience of the workforce is essential to prevent the inadvertent introduction of risks. This involves targeted interventions to enhance awareness and preparedness among high-risk workers, ensuring they understand how to avoid actions that might compromise systems and are equipped to identify and report suspicious behaviors.

  1. Have you thoroughly tested crisis management and recovery plans for a ransomware attack?

Preparing for the worst-case scenario is essential in the face of ransomware attacks. Rigorous crisis management and recovery testing are vital to ensure an effective response to such attacks. By simulating the entire process – from detecting the attack and rebuilding systems to communication with stakeholders and regulators –any gaps, weaknesses, or technical issues that might hinder response efforts can be identified. This ensures that, in the event of a ransomware attack, the organization is well-prepared to minimize damage and restore operations promptly and efficiently. In case of facing a skill shortage in the face of ransomware attacks, organizations should consider managed security service providers to strengthen their response efforts.



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