Info@NationalCyberSecurity
Info@NationalCyberSecurity

First direct evidence of lion hunting and the early use of a lion pelt by Neanderthals | #childpredator | #onlinepredator | #sextrafficing


  • Brain, C. K. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy (University of Chicago Press, 1981).

    Google Scholar 

  • Brantingham, P. J. Hominid-carnivore coevolution and invasion of the predatory guild. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 17, 327–353 (1998).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Stiner, M. Competition theory and the case for Pleistocene Hominin-Carnivore Co-evolution. J. Taphonomy 10, 129–145 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  • Arriaza, M. C., Aramendi, J., Maté-González, M. Á., Yravedra, J. & Stratford, D. The hunted or the scavenged? Australopith accumulation by brown hyenas at Sterkfontein (South Africa). Quat. Sci. Rev. 273, 107252 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartolini-Lucenti, S. et al. The early hunting dog from Dmanisi with comments on the social behaviour in Canidae and hominins. Sci. Rep. 11, 1–10 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Camarós, E., Cueto, M., Lorenzo, C., Villaverde, V. & Rivals, F. Large carnivore attacks on hominins during the Pleistocene: A forensic approach with a Neanderthal example. Archaeol. Anthropol. Sci. 8, 635–646 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Daujeard, C. et al. Pleistocene hominins as a resource for carnivores: A c. 500,000-year-old human femur bearing tooth-marks in North Africa (Thomas Quarry I, Morocco). PLoS ONE 11, e0152284 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Camarós, E., Münzel, S. C., Cueto, M., Rivals, F. & Conard, N. J. The evolution of Paleolithic hominin-carnivore interaction written in teeth: Stories from the Swabian Jura (Germany). J. Archaeol. Sci. Rep. 6, 798–809 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  • Morel, P. La Grotte du Bichon (La Chaux-de-Fonds, canton de Neuchâtel, Suisse) : un site archéologique singulier, ou l’histoire d’une chasse à l’ours brun il y a 12000 ans dans le Jura suisse. in Les derniers chasseurs-cueilleirs du Massif Jurassien et de ses marges (eds. Cupillard, C. & Richard, A.) 88–93 (Centre Jurassien du Patrimoine, 1998).

  • Andrews, P. & Fernandez Jalvo, Y. Surface modifications of the Sima de los Huesos fossil humans. J. Hum. Evol. 33, 191–217 (1997).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Münzel, S. C. & Conard, N. J. Cave bear hunting in the Hohle Fels, a cave site in the Ach valley Swabian Jura. Rev. Paléobiologie 23, 877–885 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • Romandini, M. et al. Bears and humans, a Neanderthal tale. Reconstructing uncommon behaviors from zooarchaeological evidence in southern Europe. J. Archaeol. Sci. 90, 71–91 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Blasco, R., Rosell, J., Arsuaga, J. L., Bermúdez de Castro, J. M. & Carbonell, E. The hunted hunter: The capture of a lion (Panthera leo fossilis) at the Gran Dolina site, Sierra de Atapuerca. Spain. J. Archaeol. Sci. 37, 2051–2060 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kindler, L. Die Rolle von Raubtieren bei der Einnischung und Subsistenz jungpleistozäner Neandertaler : Archäozoologie und Taphonomie der mittelpaläolithischen Fauna aus der Balver Höhle (Westfalen). (Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 2012).

  • Gómez-Olivencia, A. et al. First data of Neandertal bird and carnivore exploitation in the Cantabrian Region (Axlor; Barandiaran excavations; Dima, Biscay, Northern Iberian Peninsula). Sci. Reports 81(8), 1 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  • Verheijen, I., Starkovich, B. M., Serangeli, J., van Kolfschoten, T. & Conard, N. J. Early evidence for bear exploitation during MIS 9 from the site of Schöningen 12 (Germany). J. Hum. Evol. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHEVOL.2022.103294 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wojtal, P., Svoboda, J., Roblíčková, M. & Wilczyński, J. Carnivores in the everyday life of Gravettian hunters-gatherers in Central Europe. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 59, 101171 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Val, A., Porraz, G., Texier, P. J., Fisher, J. W. & Parkington, J. Human exploitation of nocturnal felines at Diepkloof Rock Shelter provides further evidence for symbolic behaviours during the Middle Stone Age. Sci. Rep. 10, 1–12 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Vanhaeren, M. & d’Errico, F. Aurignacian ethno-linguistic geography of Europe revealed by personal ornaments. J. Archaeol. Sci. 33, 1105–1128 (2006).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Clottes, J. La grotte Chauvet. L’art des origines. (La Seuil, 2001).

  • Cueto, M., Camarós, E., Castaños, P., Ontañón, R. & Arias, P. Under the skin of a lion: Unique evidence of upper Paleolithic exploitation and use of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) from the Lower Gallery of La Garma (Spain). PLoS ONE 11, 1–19 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Werdelin, L. & Dehghani, R. Carnivora. In Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli Human Evolution in Context Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology (ed. Harrison, T.) (Springer, 2011).

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, M., Pacher, M. & Turner, A. The larger carnivora of the west runton freshwater bed. Quat. Int. 228, 116–135 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bocherens, H. et al. Isotopic evidence for dietary ecology of cave lion (Panthera spelaea) in North-Western Europe: Prey choice, competition and implications for extinction. Quat. Int. 245, 249–261 (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bocherens, H. Isotopic tracking of large carnivore palaeoecology in the mammoth steppe. Quat. Sci. Rev. 117, 42–71 (2015).

    Article 
    ADS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Stuart, A. J. & Lister, A. M. Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea. Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 2329–2340 (2011).

    Article 
    ADS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Fosse, P., Madelaine, S., Oberlin, C., Cretin, C. & Bonnet-Jacquement, P. Un lion des cavernes (Panthera (Leo) spelaea) exploité au Dryas récent : les données du gisement du Peyrat (Saint-Rabier, Dordogne, France). http://journals.openedition.org/paleo 91–115 (2017) doi:https://doi.org/10.4000/PALEO.3098.

  • Hillgruber, K. F. & Terberger, T. Big Cats and Humans – some Remarks on the Interaction with Big Cats in Prehistoric Art. In The Homotherium Finds from Schöningen 13II-4 Man and Big Cats of the Ice Age Contributions of the scientific workshop at the paläon (Schöningen) from 05.06 to 07.06.2015 ` 109–118 (eds Conard, N. J. et al.) (Propylaeum, 2022).

    Google Scholar 

  • Clottes, J. & Azéma, M. Les images de félins de la grotte Chauvet. Bull. La Société Préhistorique Française 102, 173–182 (2005).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kind, C.-J., Ebinger-Rist, N., Wolf, S., Beutelspacher, T. & Wehrberger, K. The Smile of the Lion Man. Recent Excavations in Stadel Cave (Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany) and the Restoration of the Famous Upper Palaeolithic Figurine: Das Lächeln des Löwenmenschen. Neue Ausgrabungen in der Stadel-Höhle (Baden-Württemberg, Südwestdeutschland) und die Restaurierung der berühmten jungpaläolithischen Figur. Quartär – Int. Jahrb. zur Erforsch. des Eiszeitalters und der Steinzeit 61, 129–145 (2021).

    Google Scholar 

  • Wehrberger, K. D. Löwenmensch. Tier und Mensch in der Kunst der Eiszeit (Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1994).

    Google Scholar 

  • Conard, N. J. Palaeolithic ivory sculptures from southwestern Germany and the origins of figurative art. Nature 426, 830–832 (2003).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Chauvière, F.-X. La collection Chaplain-Duparc des musées du Mans : nouveaux éléments d’interprétation pour « la sépulture Sorde 1 » de Duruthy (Sorde-l’Abbaye, Landes). Paléo 89–110 (2001) doi:https://doi.org/10.4000/paleo.986.

  • Mallye, J.-B. Les Restes de Blaireau en Contexte Archéologique: Taphonomie, Archéozoologie et Éléments de Discussion des Séquences Préhistoriques (Université Bordeaux, 2007).

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitagawa, K., Krönneck, P., Conard, N. J. & Münzel, S. C. Exploring cave use and exploitation among cave bears, carnivores and hominins in the Swabian Jura. Germany. J. Taphon. 10, 439–461 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  • Buisson, D. & Delporte, H. Intérêt d’un raccord pour l’authentification d’une oeuvre d’art. Bull. la Société Préhistorique Française. Comptes Rendus des Séances Mens. 85, 4–6 (1988).

    Google Scholar 

  • Wißing, C. et al. Stable isotopes reveal patterns of diet and mobility in the last Neandertals and first modern humans in Europe. Sci. Rep. 9, 1–12 (2019).

    Article 
    ADS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bratlund, B. Taubach revisited. Jahrb. des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 46, 61–174 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  • Auguste, P. Apports paléontologiques et archéozoologiques de l’étude de la faune des grands mammifères de Biache-Saint-Vaast (Pas-de-Calais). Rev. archéologique Picardie 1, 63–68 (1988).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Finlayson, C. et al. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids. PLoS ONE 7, 1–9 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Peresani, M., Fiore, I., Gala, M., Romandini, M. & Tagliacozzo, A. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108, 3888–3893 (2011).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Morin, E. & Laroulandie, V. Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals. PLoS ONE 7, 1–5 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hussain, S. T., Weiss, M. & Kellberg Nielsen, T. Being-with other predators: Cultural negotiations of Neanderthal-carnivore relationships in Late Pleistocene Europe. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 66, 101409 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Leder, D. et al. A 51,000-year-old engraved bone reveals Neanderthals’ capacity for symbolic behaviour. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 5, 1273–1282 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Baquedano, E. et al. A symbolic Neanderthal accumulation of large herbivore crania. Nat. Hum. Behav. 2023(27), 1–11 (2023).

    Google Scholar 

  • Blasco, R. et al. Environmental availability, behavioural diversity and diet: A zooarchaeological approach from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) and Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain). Quat. Sci. Rev. 70, 124–144 (2013).

    Article 
    ADS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Beauval, C. La faune des niveaux Mousteriens de ‘Chez-Pinaud’ (Jonzac, Charente-Maritime, France). Première analyse. In Le Site Paléolithique de Chez-Pinaud à Jonzac, Charente-Maritime, Préhistoire du Sud Ouest, Supplement (ed. Airvaux, J.) (Association Préhistoire du Sud-Ouest, 2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • Niven, L. et al. Neandertal mobility and large-game hunting: The exploitation of reindeer during the Quina Mousterian at Chez-Pinaud Jonzac (Charente-Maritime, France). J. Hum. Evol. 63, 624–635 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gardeisen, A. Middle palaeolithic subsistence in the west cave of “Le portel” (Pyrénées, France). J. Archaeol. Sci. 26, 1145–1158 (1999).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Valensi, P. & Psathi, E. Faunal exploitation during the Middle Palaeolithic in South-eastern France and North-western Italy. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 14, 256–272 (2004).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gross, C. Das Skelett des Höhlenöwen (Panthera leo spelaea Goldfuss 1810) aus Siegsdorf/ Ldkr. Traunstein im Vergleich mit anderen Funden aus Deutschland und den Niederlanden. (Univ. Munich, 1992).

  • Rosendahl, W. & Darga, R. Anwesenheit des mittelpaläolithischen Menschen im südostbayerischen Alpenvorland. Bayer. Vor. 69, 135–138 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  • Duches, R. et al. Identification of Late Epigravettian hunting injuries: Descriptive and 3D analysis of experimental projectile impact marks on bone. J. Archaeol. Sci. 66, 88–102 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S. et al. Evidence for close-range hunting by last interglacial Neanderthals. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 1087–1092 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Fernández-Jalvo, Y. & Andrews, P. Atlas of taphonomic identifications. Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7432-1 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Delannoy, Y. et al. Skull wounds linked with blunt trauma (hammer example). A report of two depressed skull fractures – Elements of biomechanical explanation. Leg. Med. 14, 258–262 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hart, G. O. Fracture pattern interpretation in the skull: Differentiating blunt force from ballistics trauma using concentric fractures. J. Forensic Sci. 50, JFS2004219 (2005).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mole, C. G., Heyns, M. & Cloete, T. How hard is hard enough? An investigation of the force associated with lateral blunt force trauma to the porcine cranium. Leg. Med. 17, 1–8 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Driscoll, C. A. & Thompson, J. C. Experimental projectile impact marks on bone: implications for identifying the origins of projectile technology. J. Archaeol. Sci. 49, 398–413 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G. M. et al. When lithics hit bones: Evaluating the potential of a multifaceted experimental protocol to illuminate middle palaeolithic weapon technology. J. Paleolit. Archaeol. 3, 126–156 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Jantzen, D. et al. A Bronze Age battlefield? Weapons and trauma in the Tollense Valley, north-eastern Germany. Antiquity 85, 417–433 (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Milks, A. Lethal Threshold: The Evolutionary Implications of Middle Pleistocene Wooden Spears. Doctoral thesis (UCL (University College London), 2018).

  • Pickering, T. R. & Egeland, C. P. Experimental patterns of hammerstone percussion damage on bones: Implications for inferences of carcass processing by humans. J. Archaeol. Sci. 33, 459–469 (2006).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Galán, A. B., Rodríguez, M., de Juana, S. & Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. A new experimental study on percussion marks and notches and their bearing on the interpretation of hammerstone-broken faunal assemblages. J. Archaeol. Sci. 36, 776–784 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, M. J., Brickley, M. B. & Leach, S. L. Experimental evidence for lithic projectile injuries: Improving identification of an under-recognised phenomenon. J. Archaeol. Sci. 34, 540–553 (2007).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Oakley, K. P., Andrews, P., Keeley, L. H. & Clark, J. D. A reappraisal of the clacton spearpoint. Proc. Prehist. Soc. 43, 13–30 (1977).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Coppe, J. et al. Ballistic study tackles kinetic energy values of palaeolithic weaponry. Archaeometry 61, 933–956 (2019).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Salem, P. E. & Churchill, S. E. Penetration, tissue damage, and lethality of wood-versus lithic-tipped projectiles. Vertebr. Paleobiol. Paleoanthropol. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7602-8_14/FIGURES/2 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkins, J., Schoville, B. J. & Brown, K. S. An experimental investigation of the functional hypothesis and evolutionary advantage of stone-tipped spears. PLoS ONE 9, e104514 (2014).

    Article 
    ADS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G. M. Damage inflicted upon animal bone by wooden projectiles: Experimental results and archaeological implications. J. Taphon. 1(2), 105–114 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  • Demuth, W. E. High velocity bullet wounds of the thorax. Am. J. Surg. 115, 616–625 (1968).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lew-Levy, S. et al. Costly teaching contributes to the acquisition of spear hunting skill among BaYaka forager adolescents. Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 289, 20220164 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Duches, R. et al. Archeological bone injuries by lithic backed projectiles: New evidence on bear hunting from the Late Epigravettian site of Cornafessa rock shelter (Italy). Archaeol. Anthropol. Sci. 11, 2249–2270 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Duches, R. et al. Experimental and archaeological data for the identification of projectile impact marks on small-sized mammals. Sci. Rep. 10, 1–14 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Leder, D. et al. Neandertaler und Symbole. Neue Forschungen zur Einhornhöhle im Harz, Ldkr. Göttingen. Nachr. Nieders. Urgesch. 11–42 (2021).

  • DeSantis, L. R. G. & Patterson, B. D. Dietary behaviour of man-eating lions as revealed by dental microwear textures. Sci. Rep. 7, 1–7 (2017).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Schaller, G. B. The Serengeti Lion. The Serengeti Lion. A Study of Predator-Prey Relations (The University of Chicago Press Ltd, 1972).

    Google Scholar 

  • Sahle, Y., Ahmed, S. & Dira, S. J. Javelin use among Ethiopia’s last indigenous hunters: Variability and further constraints on tip cross-sectional geometry. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 70, 101505 (2023).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Thieme, H. Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nat. 385, 807–810 (1997).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Der Adam, K. D. Waldelefant von Lehringen, eine Jagdbeute des diluvialen Menschen. Quartär – Int. Jahrb. zur Erforsch. des Eiszeitalters und der Steinzeit 5, 79–92 (1951).

    Google Scholar 

  • Milks, A., Parker, D. & Pope, M. External ballistics of Pleistocene hand-thrown spears: Experimental performance data and implications for human evolution. Sci. Rep. 9, 1–11 (2019).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Milks, A. A review of ethnographic use of wooden spears and implications for pleistocene hominin hunting. Open Quat. 6, 1–20 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Alvarsson, J. -Å. The Mataco of the Gran Chaco: An ethnographic account of change and continuity in Mataco socio-economic organization (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1988).

    Google Scholar 

  • Nimuendajú, C. The Tukuna (University of California Press, 1952).

    Book 

    Google Scholar 

  • Clastres, P. The Guayaki. In Hunters and gatherers today: socioeconomic study of eleven such cultures in the twentieth century (ed. Bicchieri, M.) (Waveland Press, 1972).

    Google Scholar 

  • Ontiri, E. M. et al. Maasai pastoralists kill lions in retaliation for depredation of livestock by lions. People Nat. 1, 59–69 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldman, M. J., De Pinho, J. R. & Perry, J. Beyond ritual and economics: Maasai lion hunting and conservation politics. Oryx 47, 490–500 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gebresenbet, F., Bauer, H., Vadjunec, J. M. & Papeş, M. Beyond the numbers: Human attitudes and conflict with lions (Panthera leo) in and around Gambella National Park. Ethiopia. PLoS One 13, e0204320 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Blasco, R. & Fernández Peris, J. Small and large game: Human use of diverse faunal resources at Level IV of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain). C.R. Palevol 11, 265–282 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinn, C. P. Costly Signaling Theory in Archaeology. In Handbook of Evolutionary Research in Archaeology (ed. Prentiss, A.) (Springer, 2019).

    Google Scholar 

  • Mihalik, I., Bateman, A. W. & Darimont, C. T. Trophy hunters pay more to target larger-bodied carnivores. R. Soc. Open Sci. 6, 191231 (2019).

    Article 
    ADS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Stibbard-Hawkes, D. N. E. Costly signaling and the handicap principle in hunter-gatherer research: A critical review. Evol. Anthropol. Issues, News, Rev. 28, 144–157 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Darimont, C. T., Codding, B. F. & Hawkes, K. Why men trophy hunt. Biol. Lett. 13, 20160909 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shimelmitz, R., Reshef, H., Nativ, A. & Marom, N. Large predator hunting and its interpretation: Leopards, bears and lions in the archaeological record of the southern levant. Cambridge Archaeol. J. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959774322000221 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Daróczi-Szabó, M., Kovács, Z. E., Raczky, P. & Bartosiewicz, L. Pending danger: Recent copper age lion (Panthera leo L., 1758) finds from Hungary. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 30, 469–481 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • McNaughton, P. R. The shirts that mande hunters wear. African Arts 15, 54 (1982).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, E. G. & Obbard, M. E. Pelt Preparation. In Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America (eds Novak, M. et al.) (Ontario Trappers Association, 1987).

    Google Scholar 

  • Smallidge, S. T. How to Prepare Pelts Guide L-101. New Mex. State Univ. 1–8 (2012).

  • Hosfield, R. Walking in a winter wonderland? Strategies for early and middle pleistocene survival in midlatitude Europe. Curr. Anthropol. 57(5), 653–682 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodríguez, J., Willmes, C. & Mateos, A. Shivering in the Pleistocene. Human adaptations to cold exposure in Western Europe from MIS 14 to MIS 11. J. Hum. Evol. 153, 102966 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumann, M. et al. The Neandertal bone industry at Chagyrskaya cave, Altai Region. Russia. Quat. Int. 559, 68–88 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Soressi, M. et al. Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 14186–14190 (2013).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kimball, L. R. et al. A multi-instrument study of microwear polishes on mousterian tools from weasel cave (Myshtulagty Lagat). Russia. https://doi.org/10.1080/01977261.2017.130548242,61-76 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pantoja Pérez, A. et al. Análisis paleontológico del yacimiento del Pleistoceno superior deCova Foradada (Xàbia, Alicante, España). (2011).

  • Walker, M. J. et al. The excavation of buried articulated Neanderthal skeletons at Sima de las Palomas (Murcia, SE Spain). Quat. Int. 259, 7–21 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Coals, P. G. R., Mbongwa, N. S., Naude, V. N. & Williams, V. L. Contemporary cultural trade of lion body parts. Animals 12, 3169 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Biyela, N. G. Animal metaphors representing human images: A case study on king shaka, The founder of the zulu nation in South Africa. Anthropologist 18, 639–646 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, E. M. The Lion/Bushman relationship in nyae nyae in the 1950s: A relationship crafted in the old way. Polit. Egalitarianism Theory Pract. https://doi.org/10.2307/25606114 (2006).

    Article 
    ADS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pickenpaugh, T. E. Symbols of rank, leadership, and power in traditional cultures. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 7, 525–541 (1997).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaw, A. et al. The archaeology of persistent places: The Palaeolithic case of La Cotte de St Brelade. Jersey. Antiquity 90, 1437–1453 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., de Juana, S., Galán, A. B. & Rodríguez, M. A new protocol to differentiate trampling marks from butchery cut marks. J. Archaeol. Sci. 36, 2643–2654 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bello, S. M. & Soligo, C. A new method for the quantitative analysis of cutmark micromorphology. J. Archaeol. Sci. 35, 1542–1552 (2008).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bello, S. M. New Results from the Examination of Cut-Marks Using Three-Dimensional Imaging. Developments in Quaternary Science (Elsevier, 2011).

    Google Scholar 

  • Bello, S. M., de Groote, I. & Delbarre, G. Application of 3-dimensional microscopy and micro-CT scanning to the analysis of Magdalenian portable art on bone and antler. J. Archaeol. Sci. 40, 2464–2476 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Maté-González, M. Á. et al. Assessment of statistical agreement of three techniques for the study of cut marks: 3D digital microscope, laser scanning confocal microscopy and micro-photogrammetry. J. Microsc. 267, 356–370 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • RStudio_Team. Integrated Development fo R. RStudio. (2020).

  • Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T. & Ryan, P. D. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron. 4, 1–9 (2001).

    Google Scholar 



  • Source link

    ——————————————————–


    Click Here For The Original Source.

    National Cyber Security

    FREE
    VIEW