The Trump administration moved on Friday to dramatically speed up coronavirus screening, introducing an emergency hotline for private laboratories and new partnerships with companies developing tests that can detect the virus within an hour.

The unit within the Department of Health and Human Services that does biomedical research will award over a million dollars to two companies, DiaSorin Molecular and Qiagen, to speed up the development of the tests, the department announced Friday morning.

The Food and Drug Administration said on Friday that a 24-hour emergency hotline would be created to help private-sector and academic labs authorize new tests and process the ones deployed.

Health and Human Services also made drastic changes to the team overseeing the distribution of tests to public and private labs, installing Adm. Brett Giroir, the assistant secretary for the agency, to oversee the efforts.

Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Dr. Stephen Hahn, the F.D.A. commissioner, now must report to Admiral Giroir, said Alex M. Azar II, the health and human services secretary.

The move was another indication of tension among top health officials as the Trump administration has struggled to catch up with the demand nationally at public health labs.

The C.D.C. botched its first attempt to mass produce a diagnostic kit, a discovery made only after officials had shipped hundreds of kits to state laboratories.

A promised replacement took several weeks, and still did not permit state and local laboratories to make final diagnoses. And the C.D.C. essentially ensured that Americans would be tested in very few numbers by imposing stringent and narrow criteria.

Stocks rebounded on Friday from their worst day in more than 30 years, a rally pinned partly to signs of movement in Washington and a declaration by leaders in Germany, which has Europe’s biggest economy, to spend whatever it would take to support businesses there.

The S&P 500 jumped 5 percent at the start of trading in New York.

The buying also swept through markets in Europe, with major indexes rising as much as 10 percent. Oil prices, which have collapsed in recent weeks, rose 7 percent and yields on U.S. government bonds rose.

All of those moves were signals that investors felt a touch better about the outlook for the economy than they did a day ago.

But financial markets have been nothing if not inconsistent for the past three weeks, plunging, and then rising, and then plunging again, as each day brought new measures to try to contain the outbreak and new worries that the economy, workers and businesses would take a hit as a result of them.

On Thursday, stocks on Wall Street and in Europe plunged in their biggest daily drop since the stock market crashed in 1987, as President Trump’s ban on entry from most European countries to the United States disappointed investors who had been waiting for Washington to take stronger steps to bolster the economy.

But late Thursday, Nancy Pelosi, the speaker of the House, said that she and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin had “resolved most of our differences” on a package of economic aid for workers and companies, pledging a vote in the House of Representatives on Friday.

Adding to the positive news for markets, Germany’s government said on Friday that it would not put any limit on fiscal stimulus, and that it would take on debt if needed to bolster its economy.

Australia’s minister for home affairs, Peter Dutton, who last week met with Ivanka Trump, President Trump’s daughter and senior adviser, said he had contracted the new coronavirus.

Mr. Dutton, a hard-line conservative and former police officer who has been relatively quiet in the midst of the outbreak, said on Twitter on Friday that he had tested positive for the virus that causes Covid-19.

“I feel fine and will provide an update in due course,” he wrote.

Last week, Mr. Dutton met with Ms. Trump and Attorney General William P. Barr in Washington.

Mr. Dutton is the latest in a string of foreign dignitaries who have met with associates of Mr. Trump in recent days, only to later learn they had been infected.

At least six states and several large school districts moved on Thursday to close schools for at least two weeks, extreme measures that they hope will stem the spread of the coronavirus, but which come at the cost of upending the daily lives of 6 million schoolchildren and their parents.

All public schools, and many if not all private schools, in Oregon, Ohio, Michigan, Maryland, Kentucky and New Mexico were told to close beginning next week, and the governor of Washington State ordered all schools shut in three counties near Seattle. The Houston Independent School District, the largest school district in Texas, also said it was closing for two weeks.

The actions came as the number of people who have been infected with the coronavirus in the United States jumped by nearly 400 on Thursday. The virus has been diagnosed in more than 1,650 people in 46 states and has killed at least 41 people, according to a New York Times database. The closings could have a severe effect on parents who will need to find child care, and on the many students who depend on the cafeteria for food and the school for shelter.

In Kentucky, for example, 75 percent of public school students are eligible for free or reduced-price meals. In Ohio, there are more than 25,000 students who are defined as homeless.

Some of the largest school districts in the country have remained open amid the coronavirus threat. Officials in New York, home to the nation’s largest school district, have said closing its schools would be a last resort. In Los Angeles, the second-largest district, the superintendent said on Thursday night that schools would remain open for the time being, despite the teachers’ union calling on him to close it.

The Spanish authorities have locked down about 70,000 people in four towns in Catalonia to try to slow the spread of the virus, and Germany, which has Europe’s largest economy, announced that it would make over $600 billion available to help companies there.

The coronavirus caseload in Spain has been nearly doubling every two days, and by Friday morning, there were 4,200 confirmed infections and at least 102 deaths. Madrid alone had nearly 2,000 cases.

The government has already closed museums and sports centers, and students nationwide were sent home from school this week.

As new infections have risen across the Continent, and daily life has ground to a halt in many places, businesses have been left reeling.

Olaf Scholz, the German finance minister, said that the government could take further steps, including taking stakes in companies, if deemed necessary. “We can’t forget the lessons of the previous financial crisis,” Mr. Scholz told reporters in Berlin.

Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany appealed to citizens to reduce their social contacts “wherever possible,” as the number of infections in her country reached more than 3,000, including a lawmaker in Parliament, with six deaths.

“Exceptional situations call for exceptional measures,” Ms. Merkel said on Thursday after meeting with state governors. “This is anything but a little blip in the course of history, it is a break that will challenge all of us,” she added.

On Thursday night, President Emmanuel Macron of France announced that all day care centers, schools and universities around the country would close until further notice, starting next week. The closing will affect some 62,000 schools and about 12 million students.

Today, we look at how the places you interact with daily are ensuring they stay safe while still being able to function, including how gyms should be disinfecting their equipment, new guidance for building managers, and how needed changes may affect workers.

Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, the wife of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada, has tested positive for the coronavirus, the prime minister’s office said in a statement on Thursday night.

“She is feeling well, is taking all the recommended precautions and her symptoms remain mild,” the statement said.

Earlier in the day, Mr. Trudeau announced that he, Ms. Grégoire Trudeau and their three children had voluntarily isolated themselves at the prime minister’s residence in Ottawa as they awaited the test result.

Mr. Trudeau continues to perform most of his official duties, although his meetings have become conference calls and he was absent from the House of Commons. He spoke with several world leaders during the day, including President Trump.

On the advice of physicians, Mr. Trudeau will continue to work from home for the next 14 days, the statement said, although he shows no symptoms and physicians are not testing him for the virus.

Mr. Trudeau will make a speech to Canadians about the coronavirus pandemic on Friday following a conference call with the country’s provincial leaders

Broadway will go dark for at least a month beginning Thursday, after Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of New York announced restrictions on public gatherings in an extraordinary step to fight the growing outbreak of the coronavirus.

The governor’s decision to limit gatherings of more than 500 people was a blow to the theater industry, a crown jewel of New York City’s tourist trade. Last season, the industry drew 14.8 million patrons and grossed $1.8 billion.

All 41 Broadway theaters have at least 500 seats, and most have more than 1,000.

At a later news conference, Mayor Bill de Blasio declared a state of emergency for New York City, which will empower him to take expedited measures to control the outbreak; he could, for example, implement a curfew, limit traffic to emergency vehicles or suspend certain laws.

Mr. de Blasio said that New Yorkers should prepare themselves for restrictions that could last as long as six months.

Cases in New York State grew to 325, with 95 cases in New York City. Mr. de Blasio suggested that there would be 1,000 positive cases by next week as testing increased.

China is pushing a new theory about the origins of the coronavirus: It is an American disease that might have been introduced by members of the United States Army who visited Wuhan in October.

There is not a shred of evidence to support that, but the notion received an official endorsement from China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, whose spokesman accused American officials of not coming clean about what they know about the disease.

China, under diplomatic pressure for the early missteps in handling the outbreak, has sought to deflect attention from those failings at home and abroad and now turned to a well-worn practice of blaming internal problems on foreign actors.

“The conspiracy theories are a new, low front in what they clearly perceive as a global competition over the narrative of this crisis,” Julian B. Gewirtz, a scholar at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard, said of the Chinese.

In the United States, a number of politicians and media personalities have promoted comparably preposterous conspiracy theories.

Speaking on Fox News, Senator Tom Cotton, Republican of Arkansas, raised the possibility that the virus was manufactured by the Chinese government in a high-security biochemical lab in Wuhan. Stephen K. Bannon, President Trump’s former chief strategist and Rush Limbaugh, a conservative radio talk show host, have also pushed this theory, which has been dismissed by scientists.

China said on Friday there had been eight new officially confirmed infections from the virus in the past 24 hours, and seven deaths from it. It was its lowest official tally since the country imposed emergency measures in January.

First came a tickle in her throat. Then, a hacking cough. Then, a shortness of breath she had never experienced before. Hillary King, a 32-year-old consultant in Boston, who lives down the street from a hotel where dozens of Biogen executives contracted the new coronavirus, decided she had better get tested.

But getting tested is far easier said than done, even as testing slowly ramps up nationwide. Just days after President Trump announced that anyone who wanted a test could get a test, Ms. King’s experience shows how difficult it can be in the United States to find out if you have the coronavirus. Many who fear they have the virus have faced one roadblock after another as they try to get tested, according to interviews with dozens of people across the country.

Some have been rejected because they had no symptoms, even though they had been in proximity to someone who tested positive. Others were told no because they had not traveled to a hot spot abroad, even though they had fevers and hacking coughs and lived in cities with growing outbreaks. Still others were told a bitter truth: There simply were not enough tests to go around.

“The system is not really geared to what we need right now, what you are asking for,” said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, who leads the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, in testimony before the House Committee on Oversight and Reform on Thursday. “It is a failing. I mean, let’s admit it.”

The inability to test widely in the United States — which is far behind other countries in this regard — has severely hampered efforts to contain the outbreak. An early test rolled out to states by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was flawed, and delays have continued ever since. Public health experts have warned that each day people do not know whether they have the virus, they risk spreading it more widely.

After a day of intense negotiations between Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, Ms. Pelosi told reporters that “we’ve resolved most of our differences” and that the House would vote on Friday on the measure, “one way or another.” It would then go to the Senate, which called off a recess that had been scheduled for next week.

The legislation, Democratic aides said, will include enhanced unemployment benefits, free virus testing and aid for food assistance programs. The package also ensures 14 days of paid sick leave, as well as tax credits to help small and midsize businesses fulfill that mandate.

The fast-moving measure reflects a sense of urgency in Washington to enact a fiscal stimulus in the face of a pandemic that has wreaked havoc on the financial markets.

The negotiations hit snags as Republicans balked at the sweeping proposal to provide paid sick leave, something Senate Republicans had already blocked when Democrats sought earlier in the week to bring up a separate bill. Mr. Mnuchin, in a frantic attempt to keep talks on track, spoke by phone at least seven times with Ms. Pelosi, negotiating additional changes to the House legislation so it could have a chance of winning the support of Mr. Trump and Senate Republicans.

Reporting was contributed by Melissa Eddy, Aurelien Breeden, Constant Méheut, Elisabetta Povoledo, Ivan Nechepurenko, Raphael Minder, Steven Erlanger, Marc Santora, Megan Specia, Matina Stevis-Gridneff, Steven Lee Myers, Andrew Higgins, Damien Cave, Farah Stockman, Hannah Beech, Heather Murphy, Gillian Wong, Jorge Arangure, Bhadra Sharma, Emily Cochrane, Jeanna Smialek, Jim Tankersley, Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, Neil Vigdor, Jason Horowitz, Peter Baker, Maggie Haberman and Rick Gladstone.

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