growth and its breakthrough advances, along with their advantages, also have
disadvantages, which are obvious examples of communication equipment. In fact,
today, the Internet, telephones, cell phones and other communication devices
can be described as a double-edged sword used to facilitate communications on
the one hand and to spy on and monitor information.
pillar of cyber security – from the very beginning of this concept – is the
implementation of technical and non-technical measures that ensure the security
of information systems. But for these measures to be effective, they must cover
all possible threats and vulnerabilities, as only a small flaw can provide the
basis for a widespread attack.
The fact is
that, contrary to what most people think, “cyberspace” is not a
virtual space. In fact, the use of the word virtual has led astray people and
ideas in this field. Cyber space is a real space in a new arena for influence
and consequence of friendship, cooperation, competition, hostility and even war
between nations and other actors. It shows well that the Internet and
cyberspace have opened a new field for politics, where individuals, groups, and
governments are engaged in policymaking. Accordingly,
“cyber-politics” and “cyber security” are spoken about in
international relations and politics today. Cyber-politics is a two-part
concept that refers to the interplay of two policy areas (friendship, cooperation,
competition, conflict and the fight for values and interests) and the
Internet (a new space for acting).
Interaction Space, or more properly the “cyber-politics” space, is
the latest and most important field of interest for policy and international
experts in theory and practice, neglecting which can cause serious harm. And
unpredictable for countries as the most important actors in the field of
the field of international relations and politics there is talk of
“cyber-politics” and “cyber security”. Cyberspace is a real
space in a new realm of influence and consequence of friendship, cooperation,
competition, hostility, and even war between nations and other actors. These
illustrate well that the Internet and cyberspace have opened a new field for
politics, where individuals, groups, and governments are engaged in
is a two-pronged concept that refers to the interplay of two policy areas
(friendship, cooperation, competition, conflict, and the fight for values and
interests) and the Internet (a new space for action). Some experts have gone
even further and have spoken of cyber policies as “excellent policy”
versus “low politics”.
field of international relations, influenced by the tradition of realism,
international issues are divided into crucial issues such as security and less
important issues such as economic issues. Some experts believe that due to the
importance of the cyberspace, cyber-policy should be considered as one of the
most important, critical and security issues or excellent policy. They point
out that millions of people worldwide now have access to computers and the
Internet, and that the number of users and the level and depth of Internet use
are increasing every day, which provides a very important playing field for
politics Is. The number of users is increasing daily as well as the level of
technology. In such circumstances, cyberspace plays an important role in
guiding public opinion, setting priorities and desires, public diplomacy,
espionage, sabotage, war, conflict and everything that actually constitutes the
real policy space. As a result, cyberspace should be considered a top policy.
Theoretical Framework and the Most Important Impacts of Cyberspace on Politics
and International Relations include three fundamental issues:
is to provide a “conceptual order” to explain the relationship
between cyberspace and politics.
issue is identifying and believing in the broad relationship between cyberspace
issue is to explain the path and the important issues in this regard.
“side pressure” theory is applicable to this field.
of lateral strain theory is to provide a new level of analysis beyond the three
levels of Stephen Walt. He believes that cyberspace cannot be discussed based
on past levels and approaches of people like Kenneth Boulding and Kenneth
space requires a different level in addition to the three levels of
“human”, “states” and “international system”. At
this new level, the “global level”, the impact of cyberspace is
emphasized by emphasizing the separation between the “social system”
and the “natural environment”.
global level, the emphasis is that the Internet space and its widespread
effects on the world of politics cannot be debated with the old levels that
emphasize the individual, the state or the international arena. The Internet is
a space for simultaneous acting, nongovernmental actors such as terrorists and private
companies in the economic, cultural, security and even military dimensions.
Therefore, it should be emphasized at the global level that while combining the
other levels, it creates a broad linkage between all levels and dimensions and
is capable of analyzing other political space. Therefore, lateral pressure
theory attempts to establish a link between the individual, state, and
international levels as the old levels and the level of global analysis.
the experience of the past few decades, the Internet and cyberspace have had an
impact on the relations of countries, especially the US and Iran. In fact,
serious competition between countries in this field is positively or negatively
or positively or negatively. In this battle, major countries, including China
and the United States, are trying to outperform others in technology, which has
positive implications for the advancement of the Internet, but at the same time
the Internet has created a new atmosphere of competition, hostility and war
that some countries, including It has attracted America and Iran.
subject of Internet content and the role and policies of governments in
controlling cyberspace, powerful countries are trying to influence the
direction and overallity of the Internet space and determine its future
direction. On the other hand, weaker countries in the field are trying to
influence the Internet through content filtering, with a negative and defensive
look. In such an environment, the serious competition that exists between Western
countries and others is taking shape every day.
In the cyber-political space as an important new issue in the field of
politics and international relations, as in other areas of politics,
“values” and “interests” are played by various actors such
as governments, organizations and government actors. And NGOs, and even people,
are produced, distributed and consumed. As a matter of fact, cyber policies has
put new players alongside governments as the most important international
relations players, sometimes more powerful and successful than governments.
However, apart from all the positive benefits and benefits of the Internet,
the reality is that the Internet has provided a “new war space” that
is referred to as “cyber warfare”. In this type of war, countries and
other actors use the Internet to spy, sabotage, create riots, revolutions, and
even destroy military and critical military facilities and centers.
Of course, the Internet has also created a new space for countries to
“cooperate” and “interact”. In this context, the Internet
has made it easy and cheap to build relationships between all actors, including
governments, individuals, organizations, and institutions, with high speed and
accuracy. As a result, the conditions for cooperation and interaction have
become more important than ever. While countries and other actors are aware of
the need for extensive international cooperation on the Internet, they are
aware that the cyberspace has created a new field of international cooperation.
As for the wider impact of the Internet on all aspects of politics and
international relations through the dissemination of awareness, the fact is
that the Internet has greatly contributed to facilitating and expanding access
to information and knowledge in the national and international arena.
Individuals and human societies have become more aware and literate than ever
before, and the world is confronted with a new phenomenon called “human
awakening” in Islamic countries known as “Islamic awakening”. As
a result, political demands such as respect for democracy and the need to
respect the political independence of nations, respect for cultural and
religious values, the right to decent socio-economic development, etc. and
increased sensitivity to environmental issues. Accordingly, the Internet has
affected the operating environment of countries and other actors.
Finally, a new space has emerged in the international arena that cannot be
analyzed based on past theories, approaches, and levels. In fact, the content
and philosophy of the new space, known as cyberspace, is very different from
the past. In this new space, new and different kinds of friendship,
cooperation, competition, hostility and war have been created alongside the
patterns of the past. In addition, diverse and diverse actors have been added
to traditional actors, which are highly ambiguous and unpredictable. As a
result, new theories, approaches and perspectives that are much more flexible
and open to the past need to be emphasized.
Cyber-politics and cyber security are nowadays considered as a major issue
by international relations experts, along with older issues of war, economics,
women and the environment, and even some consider it more important than
others; Because cyberspace has some old-fashioned areas and themes.
It has come from the Rouhani’s government big cyber policies:
“Over the past 15 years, soft norms have become
internationally binding norms, and this process has been going on without
Iran’s presence and effective role play, the process and formation of norms and
binding norms that may sometimes conflict with national and international
interests. Being sovereign, it would severely damage Iran’s rights and
interests and provide future grounds and excuses for pressure and sanctions
from the cyber space.
With the proliferation of political and media reports and
spaceships on Iran’s cyberattacks on the US and Saudi Arabia, highlighting and
inducing Iranian government support for destructive and stealing information
and “presenting Iran as a cyber-threat” accelerates the process. The
sanctions could provide grounds for further pressure, cyber and non-cyber
sanctions, and hostile countermeasures against our country, whose prospects
could pose a threat to our country’s cyber interests. In the process, the
country will see the imposition of a future “cyber crusade” that
requires the necessary technical, political and diplomatic arrangements
beforehand in cooperation with all actors in the field.
Establishment of normative grounds for joint action by US
companies as a “front line of cyber warfare” against the Iranian
government and Iranian companies under the pretext of conducting cyberattacks
by Iran and joint collective action to combat filtering and support for
national antitrust flows in space. Cyber and external messengers with the
slogan of protecting users and empowering them against government cyberattacks.
“Tech companies are an important element in cyber warfare, and we’re the
first responders to cyberattacks, and just as recognized by international law
for sending medical facilities, technology companies must be neutral so they can be responsive to citizens,” says Brad
Smith. And help them. ” They want to make filters-breakers equivalent to
dispensing medicine and medical aid during wartime, thereby justifying their
intervention in other countries’ affairs. But in fact, there is no resemblance
between the humanitarian aims of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent with their
inhuman and inhuman aims.”
For example, cyberspace has provided new conditions for countries to
cooperate and compete, and of course other actors in the military and security,
political, economic, environmental, women’s, children, health, education and
more. Thus, the cyber space has created new conditions in which international relations
issues are raised differently, resulting in a new form of cyber-policy that has
particular implications for national and global security. Therefore, it is
necessary to strengthen the clerical state at national level by thoroughly
explaining and properly explaining cyber-politics and cyber security and its
impact on all areas.