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New Cyber Crime Unit Under PECA Law Raises Free Speech Concerns in Pakistan | #cybercrime | #infosec


The Pakistani government has recently launched the National Cyber Crimes Investigation Agency (NCCIA), a special cyber crime investigation unit established under the controversial Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act (PECA) 2016. This new agency will replace the Federal Investigation Agency’s (FIA) cybercrime wing and will be led by a director general with 15 years of experience in digital forensics or public administration.

An editorial published in the Dawn newspaper expressed significant concerns about the NCCIA’s objectives. The Dawn highlighted that the NCCIA’s mandate under PECA, a law originally intended to combat cybercrime such as cyber terrorism, unauthorized access, electronic fraud, and online harassment, has been used by authorities to suppress dissent and restrict freedom of the press and speech.

The editorial questioned the necessity of forming a new agency when the FIA already possessed the necessary resources, personnel, and ongoing cases. It pointed out that the transition of these resources to the NCCIA raises fundamental questions about the real motive behind this move.

The PECA law has been widely criticized for being used as a tool for political victimization. Since its enactment, numerous politicians, journalists, activists, and ordinary citizens have faced legal action for expressing their views online. The Dawn described PECA as a means for the state to “harass, intimidate, and silence critics.”

International media and human rights organizations have echoed these concerns. Al Jazeera, citing a media rights watchdog, reported a “chilling pattern” of legal threats against journalists. These charges often included accusations of disreputing the armed forces, judiciary, and intelligence agencies.

Furthermore, the international network IFEX has criticized PECA’s Section 37(1), which allows the regulation of online content deemed against the “glory of Islam, security of Pakistan, public order, decency and morality, and integrity and defense of Pakistan.” This provision is seen as overly broad and vague, enabling arbitrary enforcement against dissenting voices.

Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have also condemned the amendments made to PECA in 2022, viewing them as efforts to further restrict freedom of expression and stifle dissent. Nadia Rahman, acting deputy regional director for South Asia at Amnesty International, stated that PECA has been used to combat ‘fake news’ and misinformation, endangering journalists and human rights defenders.

Although the Islamabad High Court later declared the ordinance that aimed to make PECA more restrictive unconstitutional, the concerns about its misuse remain. Patricia Gossman, Asia associate director at Human Rights Watch, noted that PECA was not designed to address legitimate cybercrime concerns but rather to infringe on fundamental human rights under a veneer of legality.

Overall, the establishment of the NCCIA under PECA raises significant concerns about the future of free speech and press freedom in Pakistan, with fears that it may perpetuate the misuse of laws to silence dissenting voices.



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