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Twitter bans deepfakes, but only those ‘likely to cause harm’ – Naked Security


On Tuesday, Twitter rolled out its plans to handle deepfakes and other forms of disinformation.

Namely, starting on 5 March, “synthetic or manipulated” media that could cause harm will be banned. Harmful media includes that which threatens people’s physical safety, risks mass violence or widespread civil unrest, or stifles free expression or participation in civic events by individuals or groups, including by stalking, targeted content that tries to silence someone, voter suppression or intimidation.

Twitter also says it may label non-malicious, non-threatening disinformation in order to provide more context.

Among the criteria it will use to determine whether media have been “significantly and deceptively altered or fabricated” are these factors:

  • Whether the content has been substantially edited in a manner that fundamentally alters its composition, sequence, timing, or framing;
  • Any visual or auditory information (such as new video frames, overdubbed audio, or modified subtitles) that has been added or removed; and
  • Whether media depicting a real person has been fabricated or simulated.

Twitter says it will also consider whether media’s context could confuse people, lead to misunderstandings, or suggest a deliberate intent to deceive people about the nature or origin of the content: for example, by falsely claiming that it depicts reality.

‘Drunken’ Pelosi video would get a label

In a call with reporters on Tuesday, Twitter’s head of site integrity, Yoel Roth, said that Twitter’s focus under the new policy is “to look at the outcome, not how it was achieved.” That’s in stark contrast to Facebook, which sparked outrage when it announced its own deepfakes policy a month ago.

For Facebook, it’s all about the techniques, not the end result. Namely, Facebook banned some doctored videos, but only the ones made with fancy-schmancy technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), in a way that an average person wouldn’t easily spot.

What Facebook’s new policy doesn’t cover: videos made with simple video-editing software, or what disinformation researchers call “cheapfakes” or “shallowfakes.”

Given the latitude Facebook’s new deepfakes policy gives to satire, parody, or videos altered with simple/cheapo technologies, some pretty infamous, and widely shared, cheapfakes will be given a pass and left on the platform.

That means that a video that, say, got slowed down by 75% – as was the one that made House Speaker Nancy Pelosi look drunk or ill – passes muster.

When Facebook announced its deepfake policy, it confirmed to Reuters that the shallowfake Pelosi video wasn’t going anywhere. In spite of the thrashing critics gave Facebook for refusing to delete the video – which went viral after being posted in May 2019 – Facebook said in a statement that it didn’t meet the standards of the new policy, since it wasn’t created with AI:

The doctored video of Speaker Pelosi does not meet the standards of this policy and would not be removed. Only videos generated by artificial intelligence to depict people saying fictional things will be taken down.

Facebook said it would label the video as false, but that it wouldn’t be removed, given that “only videos generated by artificial intelligence to depict people saying fictional things will be taken down.”

Under its new policy, Twitter will similarly apply a “false” warning label to any photos or videos that have been “significantly and deceptively altered or fabricated,” although it won’t differentiate between the technologies used to manipulate a piece of media. Deepfake, shallowfake, cheapfake: they’re all liable to be labelled, regardless of the sophistication (or lack thereof) of the tools used to create them.

In the call with reporters on Tuesday, Roth said that Twitter would generally apply a warning label to the Pelosi video under the new approach, but added that the content could be removed if the text in the tweet or other contextual signals suggested it was likely to cause harm.

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